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Posts posted by RUNNIN REBEL



    Regulated Water Releases from the Erie Canal into Lake Ontario Tributaries Increases Opportunities for World-Class Fishing
    Pilot Program as part of the Reimagine the Canals Initiative will Boost Tourism and Businesses in Monroe, Orleans, and Niagara Counties
    Governor Andrew M. Cuomo today announced the start of a new pilot program, as part of the Reimagine the Canals initiative that uses water from the Erie Canal to enhance already renowned fishing opportunities in Western New York. Originally announced as part of the Governor's State of the State address in January 2020, the program will encourage New Yorkers and visitors to experience the state's Canal system in a different way, while also expanding tourism and bolstering small businesses in the region.
    "This fall, New York is enhancing some of our world-class fisheries and expanding opportunities for anglers into December by creatively using water from the Erie Canal to bolster fishing conditions and to extend the season," Governor Cuomo said. "As a fisherman, I'm pleased to see our incredible Lake Ontario tributaries will be host to even better experiences for anglers. This innovative use of iconic infrastructure continues our strong tradition of ecotourism while supporting our small businesses."
    The New York State Canal Corporation is methodically releasing water from the Erie Canal into Lake Ontario tributaries, increasing the water levels and flows in streams and encouraging fish to travel farther upstream, which expands areas for ideal fishing conditions. In addition, the Canal Corporation will extend the annual draining of the canal in Western NY to create a longer season for anglers.
    This fall, the Canal Corporation increased regulated water releases into Orleans and Monroe County's premium streams-Oak Orchard Creek and Sandy Creek. In early November and early December, all the other Lake Ontario tributaries, Eighteenmile, Johnson, Oak Orchard, Sandy and Salmon Creeks, will see higher flows. This will entice more brown trout, steelhead, and Atlantic and Pacific salmon populations to run up these streams, improving conditions for the fish and expanding opportunities for local and visiting anglers.
    NYPA President and CEO Gil C. Quiniones said, "This year, the Erie Canal has been a lifeline of economic stimulation across upstate New York. We're proud to launch this program - putting a spotlight on our fishing opportunities and welcoming new anglers into our fishing community-giving New Yorkers one more way to reimagine the canals and take advantage of its water resources."
    New York State Canal Corporation Director Brian U. Stratton said, "Fishing on the Lake Ontario tributaries was already world-class and well known to experienced anglers. We're proud that our Canal's infrastructure can be used to enhance the fishing experience for New Yorkers and be a catalyst for restarting the economy in Western New York."
    Department of Environmental Conservation Commissioner Basil Seggos said, "The Reimagine the Canals pilot project will encourage even more New Yorkers to get outside and enjoy our state's natural resources. Water releases will benefit both the fish in these waters and the angling public by providing quality fishing opportunities, bolstering tourism, and supporting local economies."
    Throughout the length of the program, the Canal and tributary waters will be monitored for quantity and quality to document the success of the pilot. For details and more information, please visit the Canal Corporation's website.
    This fall, DEC is reminding anglers to be SMART when fishing this year and to be mindful in taking precaution to stop the spread of COVID-19:
    • Socially distance at least six-feet apart;
    • Mask - Wear one when you cannot maintain social distancing, especially in parking lots and along footpaths;
    • Avoid sharing gear when possible;
    • Respect your fellow anglers and the resource by providing space and practicing ethical angling; and
    • Take out what you bring in or place trash in receptacles.
    This past summer, DEC and the Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation launched the PLAY SMART * PLAY SAFE * PLAY LOCAL Campaign to encourage all New Yorkers to recreate safely, responsibly, and locally and to always treat fellow outdoor adventurers with respect. The campaign invites people to take the PLAY SMART * PLAY SAFE * PLAY LOCAL pledge, and promise to use common sense to protect themselves and others when enjoying the outdoors. During the State's ongoing response to COVID-19, New Yorkers across the state want and need to get outside for a nature break, which is good for physical and mental health.
    The campaign and pledge include common sense guidelines for smart and safe recreation, including incorporating social distancing and wearing a face mask, planning trips ahead, choosing a destination close to home because public restrooms and restaurants may not be open, and visiting at off hours. The agencies are also encouraging New Yorkers to take the pledge and use the hashtag #PlaySmartPlaySafePlayLocal when sharing their outdoor adventures on social media.
    New Yorkers are strongly advised to plan their outdoor adventures ahead of time and choose alternate destinations if their first choice is closed or crowded. Check  parks.ny.gov and 511 for park capacity closure alerts and visit the DECinfo locator to find the nearest DEC-managed lands. DEC and State Parks websites also feature guidelines to help New Yorkers safely engage in outdoor activities including swimming, hunting, fishing, boating, golf, and hiking. Indoor spaces and restrooms at State Parks and DEC public facilities may remain closed out of an abundance of caution to prevent community spread of COVID-19, so New Yorkers are encouraged to stay local, within their region, and use the #RecreateLocal hashtag on social media.
    For more information about how to PLAY SMART * PLAY SAFE * PLAY LOCAL, visit DEC's website.
  2. 60899748044__251F3702-8C65-4F45-B81D-75F7A2CACF30.JPG.


    Could you imagine how much this piece of salmon could sell for RE-labeled “Sushi” instead of "Family pack full side"




    Sent from my iPhone using Lake Ontario United

  3. Place for info:      National Sea Grant Law Center. Nsglc.olemiss.edu/covid19/  

    Though allocated, I don’t know more about dispersal or application than what is online.


    The organizer of this site (seagrant.noaa.gov/seafood-resources) also said they will post on this as they learn more, but they referenced the same article I found everywhere.


    This is the response. Its a good start




    Sent from my iPhone using Lake Ontario United

    • Like 1
  4. covid banner 508.jpg
    banner linking to NOAA Fisheries COVID-19 content
    NOAA Fisheries Home Logo

    Commerce Secretary Announces Allocation of $300 Million in CARES Act Funding

    May 07, 2020

    Interstate marine fisheries commissions, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands will disburse funds to address coronavirus-related losses

    Today, the Secretary of Commerce announced the allocation of $300 million in fisheries assistance funding provided by Sec. 12005 of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, also called the CARES Act, to states, Tribes, and territories with coastal and marine fishery participants who have been negatively affected by COVID–19.

    “This relief package will support America’s fishermen and our seafood sector’s recovery,” said U.S. Department of Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross. “Thank you President Trump, Secretary Mnuchin, and our Congressional leaders of both parties for your work to pass the historic legislation that is bringing much needed relief to America’s fishermen. This Administration stands with the men and women working to provide healthy and safe seafood during this uniquely challenging time, while our U.S. fisheries work to continue to support 1.7 million jobs and to generate $200 billion in annual sales. The nation is grateful to our fishermen for their commitment.”

    As a next step, NOAA Fisheries will use these allocations (see below) to make awards to our partners—the interstate marine fisheries commissions, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands—to disburse funds to address direct or indirect fishery-related losses as well as subsistence, cultural, or ceremonial impacts related to COVID-19.

    “We are going to rely primarily on our partners at the interstate marine fishery commissions during the award process because they have a demonstrated track record of disbursing funds provided to them quickly and effectively,” said Chris Oliver, Assistant Administrator for NOAA Fisheries.

    The commissions then will work with each state, Tribe, and territory to develop spend plans consistent with the CARES Act and NOAA’s guidance. Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands will submit award applications and spend plans to the agency directly. All spend plans must describe the main categories for funding, including direct payments, fishery-related infrastructure, and fishery-related education that address direct and indirect COVID-19 impacts to commercial fishermen, charter businesses, qualified aquaculture operations, subsistence/cultural/ceremonial users, processors, and other fishery-related businesses. Once a spend plan has been approved by NOAA, the agency anticipates that the three Commissions will review applications and process payments to eligible fishery participants on behalf of the states and territories. The states will have the option to process payments themselves.

    Fishery participants eligible for funding include Tribes, commercial fishing businesses, charter/for-hire fishing businesses, qualified aquaculture operations, processors, and other fishery-related businesses. They should work with their state marine fisheries management agencies, territories, or Tribe to understand the process for applying for these funds. 

    Also of note, for the purposes of Sec. 12005 funding, businesses farther down the supply chain—including vessel repair businesses, restaurants, or seafood retailers—are not considered “fishery-related businesses.” 

    Summary of Allocations*


    Allocation of Sec. 12005 Funding

















    New Jersey




    New York


    North Carolina


    Federally Recognized Tribes on the West Coast












    Rhode Island


    New Hampshire


    American Samoa








    South Carolina




    Puerto Rico


    United States Virgin Islands


    Federally Recognized Tribes in Alaska




    Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands






    Final award amounts will be different due to Hollings and other assessments.

    CARES Act Funding Questions

    Q. Who should affected fishermen and communities contact about accessing this funding?

    A. Fishery participants eligible for funding—including Tribes, commercial fishing businesses, charter/for-hire fishing businesses, qualified aquaculture operations, processors, and other fishery-related businesses—should work with their state marine fisheries management agencies, territories, or Tribe to understand the process for applying for these funds.

    Q. Can eligible fishery participants receive direct payments?

    A. Direct payments are expressly allowed under Sec. 12005 of the CARES Act. Each Commissions’ grant application must meet the requirements of the CARES Act and reflect the appropriate use of funds and considerations as outlined in the Request for Applications, the Request for Applications letter and the allocation table provided.

    Q. How long will it take for affected fishermen to get funding from the CARES Act? 

    A. It will vary, however we expect that Sec. 12005 funding will be disbursed more quickly than fishery disaster assistance funds because the CARES Act language does not require the Secretary of Commerce to declare a fishery disaster. The CARES Act also allows the funds to be awarded on a “rolling basis,” which will enable NOAA Fisheries to execute the funds more nimbly in partnership with the states, Tribes, and territories.

    Q. What types of fishing-related businesses are eligible for assistance?

    A. For the purposes of carrying out the provisions in Section 12005 of the CARES Act, “fishery-related businesses” should be limited to commercial fishing businesses, charter/for-hire fishing businesses, qualified aquaculture operations, processors, and dealers.  Businesses farther down the supply chain—including vessel repair businesses, restaurants, or seafood retailers—are not considered “fishery-related businesses” for the purposes of this funding. NOAA Fisheries generally does not expect bait and tackle operations and gear and vessel suppliers to be eligible for Section 12005 funding. However, individual states, Tribes, and territories will have the discretion to determine how they will identify eligible fishery participants, consistent with the requirements of the CARES Act, in their spend plans.

    Q. Which Tribes are eligible for assistance?

    A. The definition of “fishery participant” identified in Sec. 12005 of the CARES Act, includes Tribal fishery participants. So, Tribes in coastal states with marine or anadromous fisheries and/or marine shellfish or finfish aquaculture operations are eligible for Sec. 12005 funds. Tribes in non-coastal states with freshwater fisheries will not be eligible for Sec. 12005 funds.

    Q. Which types of aquaculture operations are eligible for funding?

    A. Privately owned aquaculture businesses growing products in state or federal marine waters of the United States and the hatcheries that supply them are eligible for Sec. 12005 funding. This includes all molluscan shellfish and marine algae. Non-salmonid marine finfish grown in marine waters not covered by USDA are also eligible for Sec. 12005 funding.

    Q. On what basis did the agency make the initial allocation decision?

    A. Given the definition of “fishery participant” identified in Sec. 12005 of the CARES Act, the agency used readily available total annual revenue information from the commercial fishing, charter fishing, aquaculture, and processor/seafood sectors of coastal states, Tribes, and territories to proportionately allocate Sec. 12005 funding. NOAA Fisheries also took into consideration negative impacts to subsistence, cultural, and ceremonial fisheries during the allocation process. 

    Q. Who will be responsible for determining if fishery losses exceed the 35 percent standard and applying for assistance?

    A. Given the broad range of fisheries and entities affected across multiple jurisdictions, it will be important to provide states and territories flexibility in determining how they will identify which fishery participants meet the requirements described in Sec. 12005(b)(1)-(2). Thus, each state/Tribe/territory will be required to determine how they will verify which fishery participants meet the threshold of economic revenue losses greater than 35 percent as compared to the prior five year average or negative impacts to subsistence, cultural, or ceremonial fisheries. The spend plans will provide details on their proposed process for making these determinations.

    Last updated by Office of Communications on May 07, 2020





  5. 4-22-20   Good information supplied by

    Jesse M. Lepak

    Great Lakes Fisheries and Ecosystem Health Specialist

    New York Sea Grant

    SUNY Oswego Penfield 4

    Oswego, NY 13126

    Phone: 315-312-3045

    Email: [email protected]


    I wanted to send along this link to 2 relevant presentations about support programs for aquaculture and fisheries.  I feel they are well done, and the second is very current (04/22/2020).


    Here is a link: http://nsglc.olemiss.edu/covid19/index.html


    There are some very helpful examples.




    THANKS Jesse and NY State Sea Grant for all the information and support you provide.




  6. PENSYLVANIA UPDATE       4-10-20

    Executive Director of the Fish and Boat Commission

    As we continue to drive home the social distancing message, would you please share the following and attached materials via your networks?  Please free to also share and use any of the materials on our website:  www.fishandboat.com.

    In particular, the video at the following link and the graphic below have really resonated:  https://youtu.be/NUtaY260DDA.

    Thank you in advance for sharing the social distancing message far and wide.

    During a time when most of our daily activities continue to be impacted by the COVID-19
    pandemic, our favorite fishing and boating activities are no exception. Anglers and boaters
    must abide by social distancing guidelines provided by the Centers for Disease Control
    (CDC) and Governor Tom Wolf’s Stay-at-Home Order regarding COVID-19.
    Effective 8:00 a.m. on Tuesday, April 7, 2020, the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission
    (PFBC), in consultation with the Office of the Governor, Pennsylvania Department of Health,
    and Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR), opened the
    statewide 2020 trout season. This measure allows licensed anglers and youth to begin fishing
    for and harvesting trout. All regulations, sizes, and creel limits apply.
    Below is a list of answers to our most Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). Still have questions?
    Call (717) 705-7800 or email [email protected].
    Q: May I still fish and boat? Even under the stay-at-home order?
    A: Yes. Effective 8:00 a.m. on Tuesday, April 7, 2020, the PFBC opened the statewide 2020
    trout season. Fishing and boating are currently acceptable forms of outdoor activities per the
    stay-at-home guidelines from the Governor and PA Department of Health when social
    distancing is practiced.
    • Fish close to home
    • Only go fishing with family members living in the same household
    • Allow at least 6 feet between yourself and others
    • If another angler is in an area you intended to fish, move on to another location
    Q: What should I do to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus while fishing or boating?
    A: There are many things you can do:•

    Stay home if you do not feel well
    • Cover your face with a mask or cloth covering
    • Practice social distancing by keeping at least 6
    feet (the length of an outstretched standard
    fishing rod) between you and the nearest angler
    • Avoid crowds. If you arrive at a fishing spot that is
    already occupied, find another location.
    • Keep children from wandering into the personal
    space of others
    • Do not share fishing gear
    • Do not carpool•

    Buy your fishing license online
    • Continue to follow CDC guidelines, which include washing your hands or using hand
    sanitizer frequently, and not touching your face
    • If you are fishing at a state or local park, the restrooms may be closed. Use the
    bathroom before you visit or dispose of waste properly. Carry out your trash.
    Q: Has trout season been cancelled?
    A: Not at this time. Effective 8:00 a.m. on Tuesday, April 7, 2020, the PFBC, in consultation with
    the Office of the Governor, Pennsylvania Department of Health, and Pennsylvania Department
    of Conservation and Natural Resources, opened the statewide 2020 trout season.
    Q: What does the trout opener mean for Mentored Youth Day?
    A: A Mentored Youth Trout Day will not take place this season. The PFBC will honor all
    Voluntary Youth Fishing Licenses purchased in 2020 for all mentored youth fishing opportunities
    during the 2021 season.
    Q: Are you still stocking trout?
    A: Yes. PFBC staff are still working hard to stock 3.2 million trout across the state in 2020, but
    volunteers are not permitted to assist. To further discourage group gatherings, a stocking
    schedule and list of waters that have been stocked will not be provided to the public this season.
    Q: Do I still need a fishing license?
    A: Yes. To reduce unnecessary travel and social contact, anglers may produce a digital copy of
    their license on their mobile device as proof of purchase. A signed, printed copy is not required
    to prove you own a license. If approached by a Waterways Conservation Officer in the field, an
    angler or boater can provide a digital image or receipt of their fishing license, and a digital
    receipt from their launch permit or boat registration. Anglers may still display their fishing
    license. Visit the FishBoatPA app or www.fishandboat.com to get started.

    Q: Where may I fish and boat?
    A: Select a location close to home. Visit the FishBoatPA app or www.fishandboat.com to locate
    an access area and refer to the 2020 Fishing Summary Book for seasons and creel limits.
    Q: How do I report suspected fishing violations, including poaching before trout season
    A: Call the tip line at 1-855-FISH-KIL (1-855-347-4545).

    Still have questions? Again, we welcome your call at 717-705-7800 or email at RA-
    [email protected].




  7. It can't be yours 
    That thing ain't big enough for the fish you catch 
    And you drove right by it and kept going 

    You are correct sir. I saw your white van pull over and your passenger hop out and pick up the net. Mighty nice of you putting it hear on LOU trying to return it.


    Sent from my iPhone using Lake Ontario United
  8. Free RTS bus rides to continue through April 29



    The Regional Transit Service has extended its temporary fare waiver through April 29 to coincide with the extension of the state's shutdown order.

    The bus service initially waived fares on March 19 through April 19, with the idea being to keep public transportation available for those who need it and cut riders a financial break during a health crisis that has robbed many of their livelihoods.



    So in NY STATE you cannot launch your boat in most launches now to go sit in a boat with NO chance of sitting next to strangers for next several hours if you wanted..... BUT you still can ride the public buses in Rochester NY for free and pick up strangers EVERY several hundred yards or so EVERY 5 minutes or less on hundreds of public buses...................





    • Like 1
  9. mr580 QUOTE.       FOLLOW UPDATE

    "Ohio DNR is suspending sale of non-resident fishing and hunting licenses until further notice.  Current license holders can continue to use their privileges."


    Ohio is also asking non-residents entering the state to self quarantine for two weeks.



    UPDATE 4-8-20

    Record Ohio walleye run, huge crowds lead to fishing license restrictions, Sandusky and Maumee river closings during pandemic

    Updated 7:58 AM; Today 7:47 AMimage.thumb.png.febb1b72042caaa27fabd0d3826c096c.png


    In this Plain Dealer file photo, a crowd of anglers gather on the Maumee River during a the annual walleye spring spawning run. Thousands of fishermen, many from other states, have jammed rivers and towns in Northwest Ohio, leading Ohio officials to end non-resident fishing license sales. Two mayors closed off access to the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers. (D'Arcy Egan, The Plain Dealer)The Plain Dealer


    PORT CLINTON, OHIO — Veteran walleye fishermen have seen crowds of anglers on Lake Erie and the Maumee and Sandusky rivers for decades, but rarely quite like this. And never during a pandemic such as COVID-19.

    The Lake Erie walleye population in Northwest Ohio has reached record levels, an estimated population of 116 million fish that are two years old, or older. This area of Lake Erie is where walleye come to spawn each spring.

    Toss in a spate of wonderful fishing weather, and the launch ramps around Western Lake Erie have been jam-packed with trailers and tow vehicles. The rivers are clogged with wading fishermen, where it is almost impossible to maintain Gov. Mike DeWine’s mandate of social distancing and banning crowds that could help spread the coronavirus.

    “I headed to Lake Erie last weekend just to observe the situation,” said Mary Mertz, director of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, by telephone. “We didn’t want to allow the launch ramp areas to become overcrowded, and we understand the concerns of local residents.”

    Fixing the problem, though, seemed insurmountable as a steady stream of out-of-state anglers towing fishing boats kept arriving. When the Lake Erie walleye populations have exploded and the big fish are biting, it might seem like a once in a lifetime event to fishermen from Wisconsin, Minnesota or the Dakotas.

    To put a stop to the flood of non-resident anglers, DeWine announced Monday afternoon that while he would not shut down the walleye fishing, he could keep the crowds at bay by halting the sale of non-resident fishing licenses starting Monday night.

    “People entering (Ohio) are being asked to self-quarantine for a period of 14 days, making recreational travel unfeasible,” said Mertz. “We look forward to reopening license sales when hunters and anglers can safety return.”

    Louis P. Wargo III, the Ottawa County Municipal Court judge in Port Clinton, said it would not be a good idea for non-resident anglers to try to skirt the law and fish without a license.

    “The standard fine and court costs for fishing without a license here is $105, which is waiverable,” said Wargo. “The restitution paid for illegally-caught fish is $50 for each walleye or bass, and $20 per yellow perch.”

    People who are in Ohio and already have a non-resident fishing license must abide by the Ohio Department of Health guidance and self-quarantine for 14 days before going fishing, said Mertz.The spring walleye spawning run up the Sandusky and Maumee rivers is in full swing, and the rivers are also filled with fishermen. On a good day, about 10,000 to 15,000 anglers from outside the area are wading and casting, said Mayor Danny Sanchez of Fremont.

    The crowds of outside anglers is a major problem for his city, Sanchez said, overwhelming grocery stores, gas stations and retail shops. He closed the Sandusky River until at least May 1.

    Maumee Mayor Rich Carr shut down the Maumee River fishing on Monday at midnight, saying it was in response to the crowds and the health crisis. Carr initially had Maumee Police block access points to the Maumee River, and established a no-parking ban on all streets along the river.

    “We tried to allow fishing to continue, but our observations have been such that we have to take this action,” Carr told the Toledo Blade. “Observations over the weekend of those fishing resulted in the determination for the safety of our community, our first responders, and our hospital care workers, we needed to take this action.”







    21 minutes ago, brucehookedup said:

    By the way my application is in the 9 million category. 

    Good to hear Bruce,  This is where the term "BRUCE STERS MILLIONS $$$"    comes from...…..Trust me I Known this Capt for over a 40 +++ years friendship ……….



     There are not many reasons for a charter Capt not to be  looking  into getting paid their  normal $ rate/payroll for 8 weeks ? (DO YOUR OWN MATH ), AGAIN WITHOUT having the expenses/wear & tear/ and Time into driving to & from boat  or even leaving dock.




  11. 47662b23-df38-45d4-8005-9b2f50193f4b.png

    Webinar: Resources to support the fishing industry during COVID-19


    Interested in hearing more about SBA loans to support the fishing industry? What bills are in the pipeline to support small- and community-based fisheries? 
    Join us for a webinar with SBA, the US House on Natural Resources Committee, and Castlemain Group:

    • Amy K. Bassett, District Director, Maine District Office, U.S. Small Business Administration
    • Lora Snyder, Staff Director, Water, Oceans, and Wildlife Subcommittee, House on Natural Resources Committee.
    • Christy Whitmore, Business Development Advisor, Castlemain Group, a liaison between the Department of Fisheries and Oceans' Pacific Integrated Commercial Fisheries Initiative and 24 Commercial Fishery Enterprises in British Columbia

    When: April 8, 12:00 - 1:30 PM ET
    Location: Zoom video conference. Registration required: https://maine.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZEsd-uqqzojUiMyYO9rGYfH_r-z1DojGw
    Focus: Understanding resources to support small- and community-based fishing businesses across country during the COVID-19 pandemic.   





    Capts should check into this  and appy for this, since our charter business supplies a service, not a product. The fee/rate we collect is our weekly paycheck/payroll.  The worst case scenario is the loan is not forgiven (Turned into a grant that does not have to be repaid ) and then you repay loan  at a %1 interest rate. Pay down any payment you currently have to stay afloat till regular income comes back. I know a few Capt's ( if  their application is accepted ) are going to have a pretty good 2020 spring charter income season WITHOUT the expenses of ever leaving the dock.





    Thanks Lucky13 for posting this also


    And a HUGE THANKS to   Jesse M. Lepak

    Great Lakes Fisheries and Ecosystem Health Specialist

    New York Sea Grant

    SUNY Oswego Penfield 4

    Oswego, NY 13126

    Phone: 315-312-3045

    Email: [email protected]




    April 2020


    Be part of the conversation, April 8, 12:00 - 1:30 PM ET.



  12. The question now is......... Will the DEC enforce it ?  

    I am not running any charters till told publicly/legally that I can.  BUT I do not make a living with my seasonal charter business. And ABOVE ALL it makes moral sense not to for now.




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